Category: Translation Business

Creative Destruction in the Localization Industry

Creative Destruction in the Localization Industry

Excerpts from an article with the same title, written by Ameesh Randeri in Multilingual Magazine.  Ameesh Randeri is part of the localization solutions department at Autodesk and manages the vendor and linguistic quality management functions. He has over 12 years of experience in the localization industry, having worked on both the buyer and seller sides.

Te concept of creative destruction was derived from the works of Karl Marx by economist Joseph Schumpeter. Schumpeter elaborated on the concept in his 1942 book Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, where he described creative destruction as the “process of industrial mutation that incessantly revolutionizes the economic structure from within, incessantly destroying the old one, incessantly creating a new one.

What began as a concept of economics started being used broadly across the spectrum to describe breakthrough innovation that requires invention and ingenuity — as well as breaking apart or destroying the previous order. To look for examples of creative destruction, just look around you. Artificial intelligence, machine learning and automation are creating massive efficiency gains and productivity increases, but they are also causing millions to lose jobs. Uber and other ride hailing apps worldwide are revolutionizing transport, but many traditional taxi companies are suffering.

Te process of creative destruction and innovation is accelerating over time. To understand this, we can look at the Schumpeterian (Kondratieff) waves of technological innovation. We are currently in the fifth wave of innovation ushered in by digital networks, the software industry and new media.

Te effects of the digital revolution can be felt across the spectrum. Te localization industry is no exception and is undergoing fast-paced digital disruption. There is a confluence of technology in localization tools and processes that are ushering in major changes.

The localization industry: Drawing parallels from the Industrial Revolution

All of us are familiar with the Industrial Revolution. It commenced in the second half of the 18th century and went on until the mid-19th century. As a result of the Industrial Revolution, we witnessed a transition from hand production methods to machine-based methods and factories that facilitated mass production. It ushered in innovation and urbanization. It was creative destruction at its best. Looking back at the Industrial Revolution, we see that there were inflection points, following which there were massive surges and changes in the industry.

Translation has historically been a human and manual task. A translator looks at the source text and translates it while keeping in mind grammar, style, terminology and several other factors. Te translation throughput is limited by a human’s productivity, which severely
limits the volume of translation and time required. In 1764, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, a machine that enabled an individual to produce multiple spools of
threads simultaneously. Inventor Samuel Compton innovated further and came up with the spinning mule, further improving the process. Next was the mechanization of cloth weaving through the power loom, invented by Edmund Cartwright. These innovators and their inventions completely transformed the textile industry.

For the localization industry, a similar innovation is machine translation (MT). Tough research into MT had been going on for many years, it went mainstream post-2005. Rule-based and statistical MT engines were created, which resulted in drastic productivity increases. However, the quality was nowhere near what a human could produce and hence the MT engines became a supplemental technology, aiding humans and helping them increase productivity.

There was a 30%-60% productivity gain based on the language and engine that was used. There was fear that translators’ roles would diminish. But rather than diminish, their role evolved into post-editing.

The real breakthrough came in 2016 when Google and Microsoft went public with their neural machine translation (NMT) engines. Te quality produced by NMT is not yet flawless, but it seems to be very close to human translation. It can also reproduce some of the finer
nuances of writing style and creativity that were lacking in the rule-based and statistical machine translation engines. NMT is a big step forward in reducing the human footprint in the translation process. It is without a doubt an inflection point and while not perfect yet, it
has the same disruptive potential as the spinning jenny and the power loom. Sharp productivity increases, lower prices and since a machine is behind it, the volumes that can be managed are endless. And hence it renews concerns about whether translators will be needed. It is to the translation industry what the spinning jenny was to textiles, where several manual workers were
replaced by machines.

What history teaches us though is that although there is a loss of jobs based on the existing task or technology, there are newer ones created to support the newer task or technology.

In the steel industry, two inventors charted a new course: Abraham Darby, who created a cheaper, easier method to produce cast iron, using a coke-fueled furnace and Henry Bessemer, who invented the Bessemer process, the first inexpensive process for mass-producing steel. The Bessemer process revolutionized steel manufacturing by decreasing its cost, from £40 per long ton to £6–7 per long ton. Besides the
reduction in cost, there were major increases in speed and the need for labor decreased sharply.

The localization industry is seeing the creation of its own Bessemer process, called continuous localization. Simply explained, it is a fully-connected and automated process where the content creators and developers create source material that is passed for translation in continuous, small chunks. The translated content is continually merged back, facilitating continuous deployment and release. It is an extension of the agile approach and it can be demonstrated with the example of mobile applications where latest updates are continually pushed through to our phones in multiple languages. To facilitate continuous localization, vendor platforms or computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools need to be able to connect to client systems or clients need to provide CAT tool-like interfaces for vendors and their resources to use. The process would flow seamlessly from the developer or content creator creating content to the post-editor doing edits to the machine translated content. The Bessemer process in the steel industry paved the way for large-scale continuous and efficient steel production. Similarly, continuous localization has the potential to pave the way for large-scale continuous and efficient localization enabling companies to localize more, into more languages at lower prices.

There were many other disruptive technologies and processes that led to the Industrial Revolution. For the localization industry as well, there are several other tools and process improvements in play.

Audiovisual localization and interpretation: This is a theme that began evolving in recent years. Players like Microsoft-Skype and Google have made improvements in the text-to-speech, speech-to-text arena. The text to speech has become more human-like though it isn’t there yet. Speech-to-text has improved significantly as well, with the output quality going up and errors reducing. Interpretation is the other area where we see automated solutions springing up. Google’s new headphones are one example of automated interpretation solutions.

Automated terminology extraction: This is one that hasn’t garnered as much attention and focus. While there is consensus that terminology is an important aspect of localization quality, it always seems to be relegated to a lower tier from a technological advancement standpoint. There are several interesting commercial as well as open source solutions that have greatly improved terminology extraction and reduced the false positives. This area could potentially be served by artificial intelligence and machine learning solutions in the future.

Automated quality assurance (QA) checks: QA checks can be categorized into two main areas – functional and linguistic. In terms of functional QA, automations have been around for several years and have vastly improved over time. There is already exploration on applying machine learning and artificial intelligence to functional automations to predict bugs, to create scripts that are self-healing and so on. Linguistic QA on the other hand has seen some automation primarily in the areas of spelling and terminology checks. However, the automation is limited in what it can achieve and does not replace the need for human checks or audits. This is an area that could benefit hugely from artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Local language support using chatbots: Chatbots are fast becoming the first level of customer support for most companies. Most chatbots are still in English. However, we are starting to see chatbots in local languages powered by machine translation engines in the background thus enabling local language support for international customers.

Data (big or small): While data is not a tool, technology or process by itself, it is important to call it out. Data is central to a lot of the technologies and processes mentioned above. Without a good corpus, there is no machine translation. For automated terminology extraction and automated QA checks, the challenge is to have a big enough corpus of data making it possible to train the machine. In addition, metadata becomes critical. Today metadata is important to provide translators with additional contextual information, to ensure higher quality output. In future, metadata will provide the same information to machines – to a machine translation system, to an automated QA check and so on. This highlights the importance of data!

The evolution in localization is nothing but the forces of creative destruction. Each new process/technology is destructing an old way of operating and creating a new way forward. It also means that old jobs are being made redundant while new ones are being created.

How far is this future? Well, the entire process is extremely resource and technology intensive. Many companies will require a lot of time to adopt these practices. This provides the perfect opportunity for sellers to spruce up their offering and provide an automated digital localization solution. Companies with access to abundant resources or funding should be able to achieve this sooner. This is also why a pan-industry open source platform may accelerate this transformation.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
Nimdzi Language Technology Atlas

Nimdzi Language Technology Atlas

For this first version, Nimdzi has mapped over 400 different tools, and the list is growing quickly. The Atlas consists of an infographic accompanied by a curated spreadsheet with software listings for various translation and interpreting needs.

As the language industry becomes more technical and complex, there is a growing need for easy-to-understand materials explaining available tech options. The Nimdzi Language Technology Atlas provides a useful view into the relevant technologies available today.

Software users can quickly find alternatives for their current tools and evaluate market saturation in each segment at a glance. Software developers can identify competition and find opportunities in the market with underserved areas.

Reference: https://bit.ly/2ticEyT

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
Is There a Future in Freelance Translation? Let’s Talk About It!

Is There a Future in Freelance Translation? Let’s Talk About It!

While the demand for translation services is at a record high, many freelancers say their inflation-adjusted earnings seem to be declining. Why is this and can anything be done to reverse what some have labelled an irreversible trend?

Over the past few years globalization has brought unprecedented growth to the language services industry. Many have heard and answered the call. Census data shows that the number of translators and interpreters in the U.S. nearly doubled between 2008 and 2015, and, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the employment outlook for translators and interpreters is projected to grow by 29% through 2024. In an interview with CNBC last year, ATA Past President David Rumsey stated: “As the economy becomes more globalized and businesses realize the need for translation and interpreting to market their products and services, opportunities for people with advanced language skills will continue to grow sharply.” Judging by the size of the industry—estimated at $33.5 billion back in 2012, and expected to reach $37 billion this year—it seems the demand for translation will only continue to increase.

Many long-time freelance translators, however, don’t seem to be benefitting from this growth, particularly those who don’t work with a lot of direct clients. Many report they’ve had to lower their rates and work more hours to maintain their inflation-adjusted earnings. Also, the same question seems to be popping up in articles, blogs, and online forums. Namely, if the demand for translation is increasing, along with opportunities for people with advanced language skills, why are many professional freelance translators having difficulty finding work that compensates translation for what it is—a time-intensive, complex process that requires advanced, unique, and hard-acquired skills?

Before attempting to discuss this issue, a quick disclaimer is necessary: for legal reasons, antitrust law prohibits members of associations from discussing specific rates. Therefore, the following will not mention translation rates per se. Instead, it will focus on why many experienced translators, in a booming translation market inundated by newcomers, are forced to switch gears or careers, and what can be done to reverse what some have labelled an irreversible trend.

THE (UNQUANTIFIABLE) ISSUE

I’ll be honest. Being an in-house translator with a steady salary subject to regular increases, I have no first-hand experience with the crisis many freelance translators are currently facing. But I have many friends and colleagues who do. We all do. Friends who tell us that they’ve lost long-standing clients because they couldn’t lower their rates enough to accommodate the clients’ new demands. Friends who have been translating for ages who are now wondering whether there’s a future in freelance translation.

Unfortunately, unlike the growth of the translation industry, the number of freelance translators concerned about the loss of their inflation-adjusted earnings and the future of the profession is impossible to quantify. But that doesn’t mean the problem is any less real. At least not judging by the increasing number of social media posts discussing the issue, where comments such as the ones below abound.

  • “Expenses go up, but rates have remained stagnant or decreased. It doesn’t take a genius to see that translation is slowly becoming a sideline industry rather than a full-time profession.”
  • “Some business economists claim that translation is a growth industry. The problem is that the growth is in volume, not rates.”
  • “Our industry has been growing, but average wages are going down. This means that cheap service is growing faster than quality.”

Back in 2010, Common Sense Advisory, a market research company specializing in translation and globalization, started discussing technology- and globalization-induced rate stagnation and analyzing potential causes. Now, almost 10 years later, let’s take another look at what created the crisis many freelance translators are facing today.

A LONG LIST OF INTERCONNECTED FACTORS

The causes leading to technology- and globalization-induced rate stagnation are so interconnected that it’s difficult to think of each one separately. Nevertheless, each deserves a spot on the following list.

Globalization, internet technology, and the growth of demand for translation services naturally resulted in a rise of the “supply.” In other words, an increasing number of people started offering their services as translators. Today, like all professionals affected by global competition, most freelance translators in the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Western Europe find themselves competing against a virtually infinite pool of translators who live in countries where the cost of living is much cheaper and are able to offer much lower rates. Whether those translators are genuine professional translators or opportunists selling machine translation to unsuspecting clients is almost immaterial. As the law of supply and demand dictates, when supply exceeds demand, prices generally fall.

1. The Sheer Number of Language Services Providers and the Business/Competition Model: The increase in global demand has also lead to an increase in the number of language services providers (LSPs) entering the market. Today, there are seemingly thousands of translation agencies in a market dominated by top players. Forced to keep prices down and invest in advertising and sales to maintain their competitiveness, many agencies give themselves limited options to keep profits up—the most obvious being to cut direct costs (i.e., lower rates paid to translators). Whether those agencies make a substantial profit each year (or know anything about translation itself) is beside the point. There are many LSPs out there that follow a business model that is simply not designed to serve the interests of freelance translators. Interestingly enough, competing against each other on the basis of price alone doesn’t seem to be serving their interests either, as it forces many LSPs into a self-defeating, downward spiral of dropping prices. As Luigi Muzii, an author, translator, terminologist, teacher, and entrepreneur who has been working in the industry for over 30 years, puts it:

“The industry as a whole behaves as if the market were extremely limited. It’s as if survival depended on open warfare […] by outright price competition. Constantly pushing the price down is clearly not a sustainable strategy in the long-term interests of the professional translation community.”

2. The Unregulated State of the Profession: In many countries, including the U.S., translation is a widely unregulated profession with low barriers to entry. There is also not a standardized career path stipulating the minimum level of training, experience, or credentials required. Despite the existence of ISO standards and certifications from professional associations around the globe, as long as the profession (and membership to many professional associations) remains open to anyone and everyone, competition will remain exaggeratedly and unnaturally high, keeping prices low or, worse, driving them down.

3. Technology and Technological “Improvements”: From the internet to computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools to machine translation, technology may not be directly related to technology- and globalization-induced rate stagnation, but there’s no denying it’s connected. The internet is what makes global communication and competition possible. CAT tools have improved efficiency so much in some areas that most clients have learned to expect three-tier pricing in all areas. Machine translation is what’s allowing amateurs to pass as professionals and driving the post-editing-of-machine-translation business that more and more LSPs rely on today. Whether machine translation produces quality translations, whether the post-editing of machine translation is time efficient, and whether “fuzzy matches” require less work than new content are all irrelevant questions, at least as things stand today. As long as technologies that improve (or claim to improve) efficiency exist, end clients will keep expecting prices to reflect those “improvements.”

4. Unaware, Unsuspecting, and Unconcerned Clients: Those of you who’ve read my article about “uneducated” clients may think that I’m obsessed with the subject, but to me it seems that most of the aforementioned factors have one common denominator: clients who are either unaware that all translations (and translators) are not created equal, or are simply unconcerned about the quality of the service they receive. These clients will not be willing to pay a premium price for a service they don’t consider to be premium.

One look at major translation bloopers and their financial consequences for companies such as HSBC, KFC, Ford, Pampers, Coca Cola, and many more is enough to postulate that many clients know little about translation (or the languages they’re having their texts translated into). They may be unaware that results (in terms of quality) are commensurate to a translator’s skills, experience, and expertise, the technique/technology used for translating, and the time spent on a project. And who’s to blame them? Anyone with two eyes is capable of looking at a bad paint job and seeing it for what it is, but it requires a trained eye to spot a poor translation and knowledge of the translation process itself (and language in general) to value translation for what it is.

Then there’s the (thankfully marginal) number of clients who simply don’t care about the quality of the service they receive, or whether the translation makes sense or not. This has the unfortunate effect of devaluing our work and the profession in the eyes of the general public. Regrettably, when something is perceived as being of little value, it doesn’t tend to fetch premium prices. As ATA Treasurer John Milan writes:

“When consumers perceive value, they [clients] are more willing to pay for it, which raises a series of questions for our market. Do buyers of language services understand the services being offered? What value do they put on them? […] All these variables will have an impact on final market rates.”

5. The Economy/The Economical State of Mind: Whether clients need or want to save money on language services, there’s no denying that everyone always seems to be looking for a bargain these days. Those of us who have outsourced translation on behalf of clients know that, more often than not, what drives a client’s decision to choose a service provider over another is price, especially when many LSPs make the same claims about their qualifications, quality assurance processes, and industry expertise.

6. Other Factors: From online platforms and auction sites that encourage price-based bidding and undifferentiated global competition, to LSPs making the post-editing of machine translation the cornerstone of their business, to professional translators willing to drop their rates to extreme lows, there are many other factors that may be responsible for the state of things. However, they’re more byproducts of the situation than factors themselves.

A VERY REAL CONCERN

Rising global competition and rate stagnation are hardly a unique situation. Today, freelance web designers, search engine optimization specialists, graphic designers, and many other professionals in the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Western Europe must compete against counterparts in India, China, and other parts of the world where the cost of living is much cheaper—with the difference that product/service quality isn’t necessarily sacrificed in the process. And that may be the major distinction between what’s happening in our industry and others: the risk posed to translation itself, both as an art form and as a product/service.

While some talk about the “uberization” or “uberification” of the translation industry or blame technology (namely, machine translation) for declining rates, others point a finger at a business model (i.e., the business/competition model) that marginalizes the best translators and creates a system where “bad translators are driving out the good ones.” The outcome seems to be the same no matter which theory we examine: the number of qualified translators (and the quality of translations) is in danger of going down over time. As Luigi Muzii explains:

“The unprecedented growth in demand for translation in tandem with the effect of Gresham’s Law [i.e., bad translators driving out the good ones] will lead inexorably to a chronic shortfall of qualified language specialists. The gap between the lower and the higher ends of the translation labor market is widening and the process will inevitably continue.”

Between 2006 and 2012, Common Sense Advisory conducted a regular business confidence survey among LSPs. During those years, there seemed to be an increase in the number of LSPs that reported having difficulty finding enough qualified language specialists to meet their needs. Since the number of translators varies depending on the language pair, the shortage may not yet be apparent in all segments of the industry, but the trend is obviously noticeable enough that an increasing number of professionals (translators, LSPs, business analysts, etc.) are worrying about it. And all are wondering the same thing: can anything be done to reverse it?

ARE THERE ANY “SOLUTIONS?”

In terms of solutions, two types have been discussed in recent years: micro solutions (i.e., individual measures that may help individual translators maintain their rates or get more work), and macro solutions (i.e., large-scale measures that may help the entire profession on a long-term basis).

On the micro-solution side, we generally find:

  • Differentiation (skills, expertise, productivity, degree, etc.)
  • Specialization (language, subject area, market, translation sub-fields such a transcreation)
  • Diversification (number of languages or services offered, etc.)
  • Presentation (marketing efforts, business practices, etc.)
  • Client education

Generally speaking, micro solutions tend to benefit only the person implementing them, although it can be argued that anything that can be done to improve one’s image as a professional and educate clients might also benefit the profession as a whole, albeit to a lesser degree.

On the macro-solution side, we find things that individual translators have somewhat limited power over. But professional associations (and even governments) may be able to help!

Large-Scale Client Education: Large-scale client education is possibly the cornerstone of change; the one thing that may change consumer perception and revalue the profession in the eyes of the general public. As ATA Treasurer John Milan puts it:

“Together, we can educate the public and ensure that our consumers value us more like diamonds and less like water”

Most professional associations around the globe already publish client education material, such as Translation, Getting it Right— A Guide to Buying Translation. Other initiatives designed to raise awareness about translation, such as ATA’s School Outreach Program, are also helpful because they educate the next generation of clients. But some argue that client education could be more “aggressive.” In other words, professional associations should not wait for inquiring clients to look for information, but take the information to everyone, carrying out highly visible public outreach campaigns (e.g., advertising, articles, and columns in the general media). ATA’s Public Relations Committee has been very active in this area, including publishing articles written by its Writers Group in over 85 trade and business publications.

Some have also mentioned that having professional associations take a clear position on issues such as machine translation and the post-editing of machine translation would also go a long way in changing consumer perception. In this regard, many salute ATA’s first Advocacy Day last October in Washington, DC, when 50 translators and interpreters approached the U.S. Congress on issues affecting our industry, including machine translation and the “lowest-price-technically-available” model often used by the government to contract language services. However, the success of large-scale client education may be hindered by one fundamental element, at least in the United States.

Language Education: I’m a firm believer that there are some things that one must have some personal experience with to value. For example, a small business owner might think that tax preparation is easy (and undervalue the service provided by his CPA) until he tries to prepare his business taxes himself and realizes how difficult and time consuming it is—not to mention the level of expertise required!

Similarly, monolingual people may be told or “understand” that translation is a complex process that requires a particular set of skills, or that being bilingual doesn’t make you a translator any more than having two hands makes you a concert pianist. But unless they have studied another language (or, in the case of bilingual people, have formally studied their second language or have tried their hand at translation), they’re not likely to truly comprehend the amount of work and expertise required to translate, or value translation for what it really is.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the vast majority of Americans (close to 80%) remain monolingual, and only 10% of the U.S. population speak another language well. In their 2017 report on the state of language education in the U.S., the Commission on Language Learning concluded that the U.S. lags behind most nations when it comes to language education and knowledge, and recommended a national strategy to improve access to language learning and “value language education as a persistent national need.”

Until language education improves and most potential clients have studied a second language, one might contend that the vast majority of Americans are likely to keep undervaluing translation services and that large-scale client education may not yield the hoped-for results. This leaves us with one option when it comes to addressing the technology- and globalization-induced rate stagnation conundrum.

Industry-Wide Regulations: In most countries, physicians are expected to have a medical degree, undergo certification, and get licensed to practice medicine. The same applies to dentists, nurses, lawyers, plumbers, electricians, and many other professions. In those fields, mandatory education, training, and/or licensing/certification establish core standards and set an expected proficiency level that clients have learned to expect and trust—a proficiency level that all clients value.

Whether we’re talking of regulating access to the profession itself or controlling access to professional associations or online bidding platforms, there’s no question that implementing industry-wide regulations would go a long way in limiting wild, undifferentiated competition and assuring clients that they are receiving the best possible service. While some may think that regulations are not a practical option, it may be helpful to remember that physicians didn’t always have to undergo training, certification, and licensing to practice medicine in the U.S. Today, however, around 85% of physicians in the U.S. are certified by an accredited medical board, and it’s safe to say that all American physicians have a medical degree and are licensed to practice medicine. And the general public wouldn’t want it any other way! Is it so implausible to expect that the same people who would let no one except a qualified surgeon operate on them would want no one except a qualified professional translate the maintenance manual of their nation’s nuclear reactors?

SO, WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD FOR FREELANCE TRANSLATORS?

Generally speaking, most experts agree that the demand for translation services will keep growing, that technology will keep becoming more and more prevalent, and that the translation industry will become even more fragmented. According to Luigi Muzii:

In the immediate future, I see the translation industry remaining highly fragmented with an even larger concentration of the volume of business in the hands of a bunch of multi-language vendors who hire translators from the lower layer of the resource market to keep competing on price. This side of the industry will soon count for more than a half of the pie. The other side will be made up of tiny local boutique firms and tech-savvy translator pools making use of cutting-edge collaborative tools. […] The prevailing model will be “freeconomics,” where basic services are offered for free while advanced or special features are charged at a premium. The future is in disintermediation and collaboration. […] The winners will be those translators who can leverage their specialist linguistic skills by increasing their productivity with advances in technology.

The future of freelance translation, however, may be a bit more uncertain. Indeed, many argue that even with acute specialization, first-rate translation skills, and marketing abilities to match, many freelance translators’ chances at succeeding financially in the long term may be limited by the lack of industry regulations and the general public’s lack of language education/knowledge (i.e., the two factors that feed wild, undifferentiated competition). But that’s not to say there’s no hope.

At least that’s what learning about the history of vanilla production taught me. Growing and curing vanilla beans is a time-intensive, labor-intensive, intricate process. It’s a process that meant that for over 150 years vanilla was considered a premium product, and vanilla growers made a decent living. When vanillin (i.e., synthetic vanilla flavoring) became widely available in the 1950s, however, most food manufacturers switched to the less expensive alternative. After only a few decades, many vanilla growers were out of business and the ones who endured barely made a living, forced to lower prices or resort to production shortcuts (which reduced quality) to sell faster. During that period, the only people making a profit were the vanilla brokers. At the beginning of the 21st century, however, nutrition education and consumer demand for all-natural foods started turning things around, and by 2015 vanillin had fallen from grace and natural vanilla was in high demand again. By then, however, there were few vanilla growers left and climate change was affecting production and reducing supply significantly. Today, vanilla beans fetch 30–50 times the price they did during the vanillin era.

For those who may have missed the analogy: professional (freelance) translators are to the translation industry what the vanilla growers are to the food industry. Those who endure the current technology- and globalization-induced rate stagnation may eventually (if the forces at play can be harnessed) witness a resurgence. In the meantime, the best we can do is to keep doing what we do (provide quality service, educate our clients, fight for better language education in the U.S., and support our professional associations’ initiatives to improve things), and talk constructively about the issue instead of pretending that it doesn’t exist, that it won’t affect us, or that nothing can be done about it. If you’re reading this article, things have already started to change!

 

Reference: https://bit.ly/2K3t1Xe

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
The Language Industry According to LinkedIn

The Language Industry According to LinkedIn

Professional networking site LinkedIn has continued to grow since it was acquired by Microsoft for a whopping USD 26.2bn in late 2016. The site now has more than 500 million users and reportedly generated USD 1.3bn in revenues in the first quarter of 2018.

While many people continue to see LinkedIn as an online version of their resume, an increasing number of professionals find the site useful for personal branding, sales, business development, and research. Different from other social media sites like Facebook and Twitter, LinkedIn generates much of its revenue not from ad sales but from subscription services for recruiters and business development professionals. Paid subscribers are able to search LinkedIn’s extensive database in much more granular detail, which is useful for targeting potential recruits or prospective clients.

Some premium subscriptions such as Sales Navigator enable searches based on industry categories. One of the 147 such industry categories featured on LinkedIn is Translation and Localization. While not among the top categories – that honor goes to IT and Services(15m profiles), Financial Services (8.5m) and Computer Software (7.6m), the Translation and Localization category still lists an impressive 603,700 professional profiles and 21,400 so called “accounts”, i.e. LinkedIn company pages.

For what it’s worth, we sliced and diced that data and compiled a list of the top 50 countries by professional profiles and top 50 countries by company pages.

LinkedIn: Top 50 Countries in “Translation and Localization” (Personal)

Total number of personal LinkedIn profiles per country as of May 2, 2018 (top 50 countries) under industry category “Translation and Localization”

On a continental scale, Europe takes a clear lead over both North America and Asia. To the 11 translators apparently typing away in Antarctica, we salute you.

Language Industry on LinkedIn by Continent

Company pages and professional profiles in the “Translation & Localization” category by continent

Finally, let’s look at a selection of leading language industry providers and their following on the social network. Just as in real life (i.e. in terms of revenue), Lionbridge and TransPerfect battle it out for number of profiles and followers. Employees at SDL, meanwhile, seem to be more present on LinkedIn in general since, despite the relatively lower number of staff in the real world, SDL beats both TransPerfect and Lionbridge when it comes to LinkedIn profiles.

LinkedIn Presence of Large Language Service Providers

Profiles and Followers of 10 large language service providers

Of course, data from LinkedIn does not present a fully accurate picture of the size and distribution of the language industry in the real world. In Germany, to name just one example, LinkedIn struggles to gain a dominant position, competing with local alternatives such as Xing. Furthermore, translation and localization professionals working internally at large corporations may not choose Translation and Localization as their category but rather their employer’s industry.

That said, crunching LinkedIn’s Translation and Localization numbers is still interesting since it enables you to get a feel for just how big and widely-distributed this industry is.

Reference: https://bit.ly/2JP7iCa

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
SDL Cracks Russian to English Neural Machine Translation

SDL Cracks Russian to English Neural Machine Translation

On 19 June 2018, SDL published a press release to announce that its next-generation SDL Neural Machine Translation (NMT) 2.0 has mastered Russian to English translation, one of the toughest linguistic Artificial Intelligence (AI) problems to date.

SDL NMT 2.0 outperformed all industry standards, setting a benchmark for Russian to English machine translation, with over 90% of the system’s output labelled as perfect by professional Russian-English translators. The new SDL NMT 2.0 Russian engine is being made available to enterprise customers via SDL Enterprise Translation Server (ETS), a secure NMT product, enabling organizations to translate large volumes of information into multiple languages.

“One of the toughest linguistic challenges facing the machine translation community has been overcome by our team,” said Adolfo Hernandez, CEO, SDL. “It was the Russian language that first inspired the science and research behind machine translation, and since then it has always been a major challenge for the community. SDL has deployed breakthrough research strategies to master these difficult languages, and support the global expansion of its enterprise customers. We have pushed the boundaries and raised the performance bar even higher, and we are now paving the way for leadership in other complex languages.

”The linguistic properties and intricacies of the Russian language relative to English make it particularly challenging for MT systems to model. Russian is a highly inflected language with different syntax, grammar, and word order compared to English. Given the complexities created by these differences between the Russian and English language, raising the translation quality has been an ongoing focus of the SDL Machine Learning R&D team.

“With over 15 years of research and innovation in machine translation, our scientists and engineers took up the challenge to bring Neural MT to the next level,” said Samad Echihabi, Head of Machine Learning R&D, SDL. “We have been evolving, optimizing and adapting our neural technology to deal with highly complex translation tasks such as Russian to English, with phenomenal results. A machine running SDL NMT 2.0 can now produce translations of Russian text virtually indistinguishable from what Russian-English bilingual humans can produce.”

SDL NMT 2.0 is optimized for both accuracy and fluency and provides a powerful paradigm to deal with morphologically rich languages. It has been designed to adapt to the quality and quantity of the data it is trained on leading to high learning efficiency. SDL NMT 2.0 is also developed with the enterprise in mind with a significant focus on translation production speed and user control via terminology support. This also adds another level of productivity to Language Services Providers, and SDL’s own translators will be first to get access and benefit from this development.

Powered by SDL NMT 2.0, SDL Enterprise Translation Server (ETS) transforms the way global enterprises understand, communicate, collaborate and do business enabling them to securely translate and deliver large volumes of content into one or more languages quickly. Offering total control and security of translation data, SDL ETS has been successfully used in the government sector as well for over a decade.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
Six takeaways from LocWorld 37 in Warsaw

Six takeaways from LocWorld 37 in Warsaw

Over the past weekend, Warsaw welcomed Localization World 37 which gathered over 380 language industry professionals. Here is what Nimdzi has gathered from conversations at this premiere industry conference.

1. A boom in data processing services

A new market has formed preparing data to train machine learning algorithms. Between Lionbridge, Pactera, appen, and Welocalize  – the leading LSPs that have staked a claim in this sector – the revenue from these services already exceeds USD 100 million.

Pactera calls it “AI Enablement Services”, Lionbridge and Welocalize have labelled it “Global services for Machine Intelligence”, and appen prefers the title, “data for machine learning enhanced by human touch.” What companies really do is a variety of human tasks at scale:

  • Audio transcription
  • Proofreading
  • Annotation
  • Dialogue management

Humans help to train voice assistants and chat bots, image-recognition programs, and whatever else the Silicon Valley disruptors decide to unleash upon the world. One prime example was performed at the beginning of this year when Lionbridge recorded thousands of children pronouncing scripted phrases for a child-voice recognition engine.

Machine learning and AI are the second biggest areas for venture investment, according to dealroom.co. According to the International Data Corporation’s (IDC) forecast, this is likely to  quadruple in the next 5 years, from USD 12 billion in 2017 to USD 57.6 billion. Companies will need lots of accurate data to train their AI, hence there is significant business opportunity in data cleaning. Compared to flash platforms like Clickworker and Future Eight, LSPs have a broader human resource management competence and can compete for a large slice of the market.

2. LSP AI: Separating fact from fantasy

Artificial intelligence was high on information at #Locworld 37, but apart from the advances in machine translation, nothing radically new was presented. If any LSPs use machine learning for linguist selection, ad-hoc workflow building, or predictive quality analytics, they didn’t show it.

On the other hand, everyone is chiming in to the new buzzword. In a virtual show of hands at the AI panel discussion, an overwhelming proportion of LSP representatives voted that they already use some AI in their business. That’s pure exaggeration to put it mildly.

3. Introducing Game Global

Locworld’s Game Localization Roundtable expanded this year into a fully-fledged sister conference – the Game Global Forum. The two-day event gathered just over 100 people, including teams from King.com, Electronic Arts, Square Enix, Ubisoft, Wooga, Zenimax / Bethesda, Sony, SEGA, Bluehole and other gaming companies.

We spoke to participants on the buying side who believe the content to be very relevant, and vendors were happy with pricing – for roughly EUR 500, they were able to network with the world’s leading game localization buyers. This is much more affordable than the EUR 3,300+ price tag for the rival IQPC Game QA and Localization Conference.

Given the success of Game Global and the continued operation of the Brand2Global event, it’s fair to assume there is room for more industry-specific localization conferences.

4. TMS-buying rampage

Virtually every client company we’ve spoken to at Locworld is looking for a new translation management system. Some were looking for their first solution while others were migrating from heavy systems to more lightweight cloud-based solutions. This trend has been picked up by language technology companies which brought a record number of salespeople and unveiled new offerings.

Every buyer talked about the need for integration as well as end-to-end automation, and shared the “unless there is an integration, I won’t buy” sentiment. Both TMS providers and custom development companies such as Spartan Software are fully booked and churning out new connectors until the end of the 2018.

5. Translation tech and LSPs gear up for media localization

Entrepreneurs following the news have noticed that all four of the year’s fastest organically-growing companies are in the business of media localization. Their success made ripples that reached the general language services crowd. LSP voiceover and subtitling studios are overloaded, and conventional CAT-tools will roll out media localization capabilities this year. MemoQ will have a subtitle editor with video preview, and a bigger set of features is planned to be released by GlobalLink.

These features will make it easier for traditional LSPs to hop on the departed train of media localization. However, LSP systems won’t compare to specialized software packages that are tailored to dubbing workflow, detecting and labeling individual characters who speak in videos, tagging images with metadata, and the like.

Reference: https://bit.ly/2JZpkSM

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
England’s Top Judge Predicts ‘the End of Interpreters’

England’s Top Judge Predicts ‘the End of Interpreters’

The top judge in England and Wales has joined the machine translation debate. And he is not mincing his words. Speaking on “The Age of Reform” at the Sir Henry Brooke Annual Lecture on June 7, 2018, the Lord Chief Justice (LCJ) of England and Wales stated “I have little doubt that within a few years high quality simultaneous translation will be available and see the end of interpreters”.

The Lord Chief Justice is the Head of the Judiciary of England and Wales. He is also the President of the Courts of England and Wales and responsible for representing the views of the judiciary to Parliament and the Government.

In his speech, the LCJ, Ian Burnett, also described current-state online instant translation as “the technological equivalent of the steam-engine” and “artificial intelligence that is the transformative technology of our age.”

He acknowledged, however, that the current ambition of “HMCTS [HM Courts & Tribunals Service] and Government is more modest but nonetheless important. It is to bring our systems up to date and to take advantage of widely available technology.”

The comment made by Lord Burnett of Maldon, who occupies one of the most senior judicial positions in the U.K., has been met with disbelief by some, with a number of industry professionals posting comments in response to an article published online by the Law Society Gazette on June 8, 2018.

“I have little doubt that within a few years high quality simultaneous translation will be available and see the end of interpreters” — Lord Burnett of Maldon

One anonymous comment read “…I feel that the LCJ simply does not have the slightest understanding of what interpreters do, or the difficulties they face, in the real world.” Another contributor said that “it is astonishing and very seriously worrying that any member of the judiciary, let alone the LCJ, can seriously think that a computer will in the foreseeable future, or even ever, be able accurately to translate the fine nuances of a legal argument or evidence.”

Interpretation services for the HMCTS are currently provided under a four-year MoJ contract worth GBP 232.4m (USD 289m), which thebigword took over from Capita TI in late 2016.

Slator reached out to language service provider (LSP) thebigword for comment, and CEO Larry Gould responded by agreeing on the one hand that “it is right to say that machine translation and AI are transforming the language sector, as they are many other parts of the economy.”

He continued in explaining that, “our experiences have taught us that AI still has a long way to go in being able to deliver the subtleties and nuances of language. At the moment these can be lost very quickly with machine translation, and this could have a big impact on access to justice and law enforcement if it is rushed out too fast.”

“(…) this could have a big impact on access to justice and law enforcement if it is rushed out too fast” — Larry Gould, CEO, thebigword

For an interpreter’s perspective, Slator also contacted Dr Jonathan Downie PhD, AITI, whose PhD was on client expectations of interpreters. Downie told us that “The Lord Chief Justice has done all interpreters a favour by raising the issue of machine interpreting and showing how persuasive the PR around it has been. He is also right that legal Interpreting is ripe for technological change.”

“We do have to remember however that so far the lab results of machine interpreting have been shown to be irrelevant to real-life. The Tencent fiasco with machine interpreting at the Boao Forum this year taught us that lesson, as has almost every public trial of the technology outside of basic conversations.”

“We do have to remember however that so far the lab results of machine interpreting have been shown to be irrelevant to real-life” — Dr Jonathan Downie PhD, AITI

“It may be meaningful that my challenge to machine interpreting companies to put their technology on trial at a realistic conference has been met with deafening silence. Could it be that they are not as convinced by their PR and marketing as the Lord Chief Justice seems to be?”

Reference: https://bit.ly/2JIotc2

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
The Stunning Variety of Job Titles in the Language Industry

The Stunning Variety of Job Titles in the Language Industry

Slator published an amazing report about the job titles used in the language industry in LinkedIn. They have identified over 600 unique titles…and counting! An impressive total for what is often referred to as a niche industry. Here they ask What does it all mean?

Project Management

While Transcreation and Localization indicate that a Project Manager is operating within the language industry (rather than in Software or Construction, for example), the AssociateSenior and Principal prefaces are indicative of the job level. Hyphens also seem to be en vogue on LinkedIn, and used mainly to denote the specific customer segment, as in the case of “Project Manager – Life Sciences”. We also see Language Manager or Translation Manager, although these seem to be more in use when a Project Manager is responsible for an inhouse linguistic team.

Coordinator and Manager appear to be used somewhat interchangeably across the industry, but where one company uses both titles, Manager is usually more senior. So how do you tell where a Project Coordinator ends and a Project Manager begins, especially if the lines are blurred further with the Associate, Principal or Senior modifiers?

Some companies reserve the Project Manager title for those who are customer facing, while Coordinators might remain more internally focused (e.g. performing administrative and linguist-related tasks but not interfacing with the customers). To make this same distinction, some LSPs are increasingly using Customer Success Manager, a title that presumably has its origin among Silicon Valley startups.

The Program Manager title is also emerging as a mid to senior job title in Project Management on technology and other large accounts, with an element of people or portfolio management involved as well. In other companies, Account Manager can also be used to describe a similar role within Project Management, specifically customer focused, and often also involving a degree of people or performance management.

Confusingly, Account Managers in many LSPs are part of the Sales function, with revenue / retention targets attached. Likewise, the Customer Success Manager job title is broad and ambiguous since it can also apply to both Sales and Project Management staff.

Sales and Business Development

Across the Sales function, we find a similar array of job titles: from Business Development Manager and Senior Localization Strategy Consultant to Strategic Account Executive and Vice President of Sales. Preferences range from specific to vague on a spectrum of transparency, with the slightly softer BD title being more favored among the frontline Sales staff in LSPs. We also note the C-Suite title Chief Revenue Officerentering the arena as someone responsible for the revenue generating activities of Marketing and Sales teams, and offer a special mention to the Bid Managers and Pre-Sales teams.

Solutions

At the center of the Sales, Operations and Technology Venn diagram are the Solutions teams, striving to solve the most complex of customer and prospective client “puzzles”. From the generic Solutions ArchitectDirector of Client Solutions, Solutions Consulting and Director of Technology Solutions, to the more specific Cloud Solutions Architect or Solutions Manager for Machine Intelligence, these individuals help make the promises of Sales a reality for the customer by enabling the Operations teams to deliver the right product in the right way.

Vendor Management

It’s a similar state of affairs across the Vendor Management function. Here we find Global Procurement Directors, Supplier Relations Managers, Area Sourcing Managers, Supply Chain Managers and Talent Program Managers, all dedicated to the managing the pool of linguists and other linguistic subcontractors within an LSP.

Linguists

Arguably the lifeblood of the language industry, but not every LSP has them. Companies that do have a team of linguists inhouse hire for roles such as Medical and Legal InterpreterSenior EditorTechnical TranslatorInhouse Translator/Reviser and French Translator-Subtitler, with some multi-tasking as Translator / IT Manager and Account Manager / Translator.

Tech etc.

The Technology function(s) in LSPs can be a bit of a catch-all for employees working on IT, software development and functional QA activities, within many coming from outside the industry originally. The extent to which an LSP develops its own solutions inhouse will determine the technicality of the job titles assigned to Technology staff, and some language industry old-timers may be hard-pressed to tell their Junior Full Stack Software Developer from their Senior UX Designer and their Product Managers from their Project Manager. Other Tech-type job roles include QA Automation EngineerAssociate Customer Support EngineerChief Information Officer, and Sound Engineer.

Back-Office

Perhaps the most standardized and least localization-specific area of the language industry, the back-office and shared-services functions house the likes of marketing, payroll, HR, finance, and accounting professionals. Behind the scenes here can be found HR SpecialistsHR Generalists (and everything in between), your friendly Director of Talent Acquisition as well as Financial Accounting Managers, Group Financial Controllers, and not forgetting General Counsel.

Why The Variety?

There are many elements at play in explaining the mindblowing variety of job titles found in the language industry. Some of the key factors include:

  • Geography – While variants of the VP title are seen more in the US, Asia tends to favour Area or Country Managers. By contrast, Directors and Heads of are most likely to be found in Europe.
  • Customer Base – Some companies tap into the idea of using job titles strategically to mirror the language used by their clients, hence Customer Success Manager in a Tech-focused LSP, or Principal Project Manager in one servicing a Financial customer base.
  • Organizational Design – Flatter organizations typically differentiate less between job levels while others design progressively more senior titles as a people management / motivational tool. Internally, an employee may achieve levels of progression (junior, senior or level 1, 2, 3 etc.), without the external facing job title having changed. This contributes to giving companies a….
  • Competitive Edge – Helpfully, job titles that are ambiguous are less understandable to those outside the business, which can make it harder for competitors to poach the best employees.
  • Creative License – Since LinkedIn profiles are normally owned by individuals, employees have a certain leave to embellish on their actual job titles.

In alongside the obvious and mundane, the vague and ambiguous are also some intriguing job titles: we spotted Traffic Coordinator, People Ops and Quality Rater to name just a few.

Reference: https://bit.ly/2JbQpl6

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
2018 European Language Industry Survey Results

2018 European Language Industry Survey Results

GALA published the 2018 survey results for European Language Industry. In the preamble, it appears to be one of the most successful  surveys from its kind.

With 1285 responses from 55 countries, including many outside Europe, this 2018 edition of the European Language Industry survey is the most successful one since its start in 2013.

This report analyses European trends rather than those in individual countries. Significant differences between countries will be highlighted if the number of answers from those countries is sufficiently high to draw meaningful conclusions.

Objectives of This Survey

The objectives of the survey have not changed compared to previous editions. It was not set up to gather exact quantitative data but to establish the mood of the industry. As such it does not replace other local, regional or global surveys of the language industry but adds the important dimensions of perception and trust which largely determine the actions of industry stakeholders.

The questions concerning the market as well as the open questions regarding trends and concerns are identical to those in the previous editions in order to detect changes in prevailing opinions.

The survey results report covers many aspect in the language industry. We chose the below aspects to highlight on:

Certification Requirements 

Companies report an increase in certification requirements in 2017 and consequently adjust their expectations for 2018 upward. Although most responding companies expect the requirements to stay at the current level, 25% of them expect an increase. Nobody is expecting a decrease.


Security Requirements

According to the respondents, the real increase in security requirements exceeded even the 2017 expectations, which led them to further increase their expectations for 2018.

Operational Practices

Outsourcing remains a popular practice among language service companies, with 40% indicating that they want to increase this practice. Only 2% report a decrease. Even more popular is MT post-editing this year. 37% report an increase and an additional 17% indicate that they are starting this practice.

Crowdsourcing and offshoring, both often debated in language industry forums, remain slow starters. This year 5% of the companies report to start with crowdsourcing and 4% to increase their use of this practice. Offshoring has already a slightly higher penetration and 11% of the
companies report to increase this practice, compared to 5% in 2017. An additional 3% want to start with the practice.

Note: the graph above does not represent actual usage of the practices, but the level of their expected development, determined as follows: [start * 2] + [increase] – [stop * 2] – [decrease].

Technology

Machine Translation

We will remember 2018 as the year in which more than 50% of both the companies and the individual language professionals reported that they are using MT in one form or another.

The technology cannot yet be considered mainstream, because only 22% of the LSC’s and 19% of the individuals state that they are using it daily, but the number of companies and individuals that are not using it at all has dropped to respectively 31% and 38%.

This does not mean that MT users are enthusiastically embracing the technology, as the answers in the section about negative trends testify, but it is a strong indication that the market has accepted that machine translation is here to stay.

The survey results also show that using MT does not necessarily mean investing in MT. The most popular engine is still the free Google Translate. 52% of all respondents report that they are using the site, but we see a clear difference between the various categories of respondents. While more than 70% of the respondents in training institutes report that they are using the site, only 49% of the translation companies and 52% of the individual translators state the same.

CAT and Terminology Tools

This year’s results confirm the 2017 statement that the use of CAT tools is clearly more widespread in language service companies than in the individual professionals’ community. Less than 1% of the companies report that they are not using CAT tools, compared to 13% of the
individual language professionals.

This year the survey tried to ascertain the level of competition on the CAT market. The survey results indicate that this CAT landscape is becoming more complex, but they also show that the SDL/TRADOS product suite still has a leading position in terms of installed base,
with 67% of the respondents using one or more versions of the product (ranging from 56% of the training institutes to 79% of the translation companies).

MemoQ can currently be considered as the most serious contender, with approx. 40% penetration. The top 5 is completed with Memsource, Wordfast and Across, which all remain below the 30% installed base mark.

Not surprisingly, Multiterm (the terminology tool linked with the SDL/Trados suite) is the most popular terminology tool around – except for the basic Office-type tools that are used 50% more often than Multiterm, which itself is used 6 times more often than the next in line.

Translation Management Systems

The level of penetration of translation management systems in language service companies has not significantly changed compared to 2017, with 76% of the responding companies using some type of management system.

The most popular 3rd party system in this category is Plunet, followed by XTRF. SDLTMS on the other hand seems to be more often selected by training institutes and translation departments.

Recruitment and Training

Skill Level of  New-Master Level Graduates

The results below refer to training institutes, translation companies and translation departments (359 respondents).

A majority of these respondents rate all skills of new graduates as either sufficiently developed or very well developed. Translation tool skills score lowest, despite the stronger cooperation between universities and translation professionals, and the efforts made by translation tool
providers.

10 to 15% used the “not applicable” answer, which indicates that the person who completed the survey is not involved in recruitment and therefore was not comfortable giving an opinion.

Investment in Training or Professional Development

Which Type of Training Have You Organized or Attended in 2017?

The following chart presents the popularity of the various types of training across all respondent types.

Not surprisingly, the respondents representing training institutes, translation companies and translation departments report a higher than average number of trainings organised or followed. Given the importance of lifelong learning, the 15% respondents that did not organise or follow any training in 2017 can – and should – be considered as a wakeup call for the industry at large.

Return on Investment

Training institutions, translation companies and translation departments report a considerably higher impact of training on their performance than the individual professionals, which make up most of the respondents.

Trends for The Industry 

In this edition of the survey, the open question about trends that will dominate the industry has been split to allow the respondents to distinguish between positive and negative trends.

The fact that both language service companies and individual professionals see price pressure as a prevailing negative trend but at the same time expect a status quo on pricing indicates that they are fairly confident that they will be able to withstand the pressure.

Across the board, the increase of translation demand is the most often cited positive trend for 2018, with 16% of the respondents. Advances in technology in general (including CAT), machine translation, increased professionalism and a higher awareness by the market of the importance of language services complete the top 5. Interesting to note is that quite a few respondents, in particular individual professionals, expect that the lack of quality of machine translation can lead to an increased appreciation for the quality of human translation.

That same machine translation clearly remains the number 2 among the negative trends, almost always correlated with the factor price pressure. The traditional fear that machine translation opens the door to lower quality and more competition by lower qualified translators and translation companies remains strong.

The report also includes some insights. We chose the below insights to highlight on:

1-  Most European language service companies (LSCs) can be considered to be small.
2-  The number of individual language professionals that work exclusively as subcontractors decreases with growing revenue.

3-  Legal services remain undisputedly the most widely served type of customer for both respondent types; companies and individuals. 

4-  Machine Translation engines that require financial or time investment have difficulty to attract more than minority interest.

5-  Except for “client terms and conditions” and “insufficient demand”, language service companies score all challenges higher than individual professionals.

Conclusion

This 2018 edition of the European Language Industry survey reinforces the positive image that could already be seen in the 2017 results. Virtually all parameters point to higher confidence in the market, from expected sales levels, recruitment plans and investment intentions to the expectation that 2018 prices will be stable.

2018 is clearly the year of machine translation. This is the first year that more than half of the respondents declare that they are using the technology in one way or another. On the other hand, it is too soon to conclude that MT is now part of the translation reality, with only some
20% of the language service companies and independent language professionals reporting daily usage. Neural MT has clearly not yet brought the big change that the market is expecting.

Changes to the technology questions are giving us a better view of the actual use of CAT, MT and other technologies by the various categories of respondents. New questions about internships have brought us additional insights in the way that the market is looking upon this
important tool to bridge the gap between the universities and the professional world.

Reference: http://bit.ly/2HOJEpx

Print Friendly, PDF & Email